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COVID-19 Treatment Information

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At-Home (OTC) Treatment

Over-the-Counter Medications

Your healthcare provider might recommend over-the-counter medications, like acetaminophen or ibuprofen, to help relieve symptoms during a COVID-19 infection. Drinking water to stay hydrated and getting plenty of rest can support the body’s natural defenses and help the body fight the virus.

At-Home Prescription Treatment

These treatments are in limited supply, and a prescription does not guarantee the medication will be available.

Paxlovid

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Pfizer’s Paxlovid for the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in people who are 12 years and older, weigh at least 40 kilograms (kg), have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and are at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19, including hospitalization or death. Paxlovid reduced the risk of hospitalization or death among patients with COVID-19 by 88% compared to placebo.

Paxlovid is an antiviral drug that works by blocking an enzyme necessary for the replication of the virus. Paxlovid is administered as three tablets (two tablets of nirmatrelvir and one tablet of ritonavir) taken together orally twice daily for five days, for a total of 30 tablets. Paxlovid is available by prescription only and should be initiated as soon as possible after diagnosis of COVID-19 and within five days of symptom onset.

Paxlovid is not recommended for people with certain medical conditions and may interact with other prescribed medications.

Molnupiravir

FDA issued EUA for Merck’s molnupiravir for the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in adults 18 and older who have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, are at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19, including hospitalization or death, and for whom alternative COVID-19 treatment options authorized by the FDA are not accessible or clinically appropriate. Molnupiravir reduced the risk of hospitalization or death among patients with COVID-19 by 30% compared to placebo.

Molnupiravir is an antiviral drug that works by manipulating the enzyme responsible for viral replication. Molnupiravir tricks these enzymes into entering errors in the virus’s genetic code. These errors build up over time until the virus is no longer capable of surviving.

Molnupiravir is not recommended for use during pregnancy as it may cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant individuals. People of childbearing potential are advised to use a reliable method of birth control correctly and consistently during treatment with molnupiravir and for four days after the final dose. People of reproductive potential who are sexually active with people of childbearing potential are advised to use a reliable method of birth control correctly and consistently during treatment with molnupiravir and for at least three months after the final dose.

Molnupiravir is administered as four 200 milligram capsules taken orally every 12 hours for five days, for a total of 40 capsules. Molnupiravir is available by prescription only and should be initiated as soon as possible after diagnosis of COVID-19 and within five days of symptom onset.


Treatment in a Medical Setting

Remdesivir

FDA has approved remdesivir (Veklury) for the treatment of COVID-19 in 28 days of age and older weighing at least 3 kilograms (about 7 pounds), have a positive SARS-CoV-2 viral testing result, and are:

  • Hospitalized; OR
  • Not hospitalized and have mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and are at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19, including hospitalization or death.

Remdesivir is an antiviral medication that is given by injection into a vein. The medication works by binding to the enzymes that are necessary for viral replication and preventing them from doing their job. Remdesivir is available by prescription only.

FDA issued an EUA for baricitinib (Olumiant), an immune modulator, in combination with remdesivir (Veklury) for treatment of suspected or laboratory confirmed COVID-19 in hospitalized adults and pediatric patients 2 years of age or older and requiring supplemental oxygen, invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygen (ECMO).

Baricitinib tablets are given orally and may help improve health outcomes of COVID-19 by reducing hyperinflammation.


Click an icon on the map below for specific treatment site information.

Bebtelovimab Monoclonal Antibody Treatment Site
Molnupiravir Antiviral Treatment Sites
Paxlovid Antiviral Treatment Sites
Evusheld PrEP


Monoclonal Antibody (mAb) Therapies

All mAb therapies are in limited supply, and not everyone will be eligible for treatment. A prescription from a healthcare provider is required to receive any mAb therapy. Variants, like Omicron, may have an impact on the effectiveness of mAb therapies. Due to the high frequency of the Omicron variant, two mAb therapies are not currently authorized in any U.S. region: REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab) and bamlanivimab and etesevimab.

Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-made proteins that mimic the immune system’s ability to fight off harmful pathogens, like the virus that causes COVID-19. These mAbs block entry into human cells, thus neutralizing the virus. There are three monoclonal antibody therapies that are authorized for use in the U.S. through an EUA. Two may be used during a COVID-19 infection, and the other may be used before exposure to help prevent infection.

Bebtelovimab
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for the monoclonal antibody bebtelovimab for the treatment of COVID-19 that retains activity against the omicron variant. The EUA for bebtelovimab is for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in adults and pediatric patients (12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kilograms, which is about 88 pounds) with a positive COVID-19 test, and who are at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19, including hospitalization or death, and for whom alternative COVID-19 treatment options approved or authorized by the FDA are not accessible or clinically appropriate.

Bebtelovimab is not authorized for patients who are hospitalized due to COVID-19 or require oxygen therapy due to COVID-19. Treatment with bebtelovimab has not been studied in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. Monoclonal antibodies, such as bebtelovimab, may be associated with worse clinical outcomes when administered to hospitalized patients with COVID-19 requiring high flow oxygen or mechanical ventilation.

Some healthcare providers may have bebtelovimab but may not have reported it to IDOH and may not be listed on the treatment map. If you cannot find bebtelovimab near you on the map, reach out to a healthcare provider, local hospital or clinic to ask about availability.

Sotrovimab
The administration of sotrovimab is currently not authorized by the U.S. FDA because it is not fully active against the BA.2 Omicron variant, which is now the dominant strain in the United States. The FDA Fact Sheet for Sotrovimab was updated on March 25, to reflect new data regarding the BA.2 virus.

Evusheld (tixagevimab and cilgavimab)
FDA issued EUA for AstraZeneca’s Evusheld for the pre-exposure prophylaxis (prevention) of COVID-19 in certain individuals 12 and older who do not currently have COVID-19 and have not recently been exposed to someone with COVID-19. Individuals may be eligible for this pre-exposure prevention treatment if they are moderately to severely immunocompromised and may not mount an adequate immune response to COVID-19 vaccination, or have a history of severe adverse reactions to a COVID-19 vaccine and/or component(s) and are unable to get vaccinated. Evusheld is the only monoclonal antibody therapy that helps prevent COVID-19 infection before exposure to the virus. Pre-exposure prevention with Evusheld is not a substitute for vaccination in individuals for whom COVID-19 vaccination is recommended. Evusheld can be administered through intravenous (IV) infusion at a healthcare facility. Evusheld is expected to be effective against the Omicron variant, but more data are needed to fully assess the impact of the variant.

The FDA recently updated the EUA for Evusheld and made a change to the dosing regimen.  Evusheld now should be administered as an initial dose of 600 mg. Individuals who already received the previously authorized initial 300 mg dose should receive a second Evusheld dose as soon as possible. Recommendations will be made soon when more data are available to determine the appropriate timing of redosing.

This medication is in limited supply, so visit this website for updates on availability.

Ask a doctor

Treatments used for COVID-19 should be discussed with a healthcare provider. People have been seriously harmed and even died after taking products not approved for COVID-19, even products approved or prescribed for other uses.

Always check that your information is from a trusted source. If you have questions about any medication, contact the FDA’s Division of Drug Information at 301-796-3400 or [email protected].


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This site was last updated Sep 29, 2022 10:47 AM